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Russian Law Journal

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Vol 6, No 4 (2018)
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https://doi.org/10.17589/2309-8678-2018-6-4

EDITORIAL

Articles

8-36 465
Abstract

The article examines the phenomenon of politicization of constitutional relations. In particular, three of its aspects are identified and investigated: the impact of social revolutions on the rule of law; the problem of lustration of state employees; and the deepening of the politicization of the judiciary. Social revolutions, including the Ukrainian 2013–2014 social revolution, are viewed as a concept that can have a decisive influence on the reform of the state mechanism and, in many ways, determine its future destiny. The lustration procedure, which is considered in the context of transitional justice – a scientific discipline that studies the functioning of justice in transitional democracies, undergoes special research herein. The classification of lustration according to various criteria is given. The article also shows the practice of a number of states whose judicial systems fall under the concept of political justice. A shocking conclusion is drawn that the percentage of acquittals in Nazi Germany
for non-political crimes was higher than in modern Russia or Ukraine.

37-61 261
Abstract

The article researches the phenomenon of constituent power as a theoretical concept and the practice of its implementation in Ukraine. Constituent power is associated with the process of adopting a constitution and making amendments to it. A distinction is made between primary and institutional constituent powers. The constituent nature of the Constitution of Ukraine in the interpretation of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine is analyzed. The reasons why the Law “On an All-Ukrainian Referendum” was held invalid with regard to the constituent power of the people is considered. There is an inconsistency in the primary and institutional constituent powers’ interpretation of amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine. The constitutional reform of 2004, the interference with this reform by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine in 2010 and its return by the parliament in 2014 are examined from the standpoint of the constituent power concept. It is concluded that a new constitutional reform, which would provide a clean slate, could be an acceptable solution in Ukraine. In the future, the text of the reformed Constitution should provide for clear mechanisms for amending the Constitution of Ukraine and the adoption of a new Constitution, which would necessarily include procedures for popular legitimacy.

62-99 357
Abstract

The article provides a comparison of legislation of the United States, Australia, the EU and Ukraine regulating the legal status of a lawyer in the administration of justice mechanism, as well as an analysis the correlation of his duties to the court and to the client. The author recommends that a lawyer not act in a manner that best serves the interests of the client since this will put the course of justice and public confidence in the profession in a vulnerable position; attorneys have to inform clients that their duty to the court is of paramount importance. In case of improper performance of their professional duties, lawyers should be brought not only to corporate liability (disciplinary liability, which is established by the legislation of Ukraine), but also to the civil law (property) liability that is proposed to be established. It is necessary for Ukraine to introduce insurance institution against a lawyer’s property liability as a means of minimizing the negative consequences for a lawyer, assuming such liability results from an error and such lawyer is obliged to compensate the harm caused to the client.

100-125 242
Abstract

Russia and Ukraine have recently adopted complex statutes on consumer credit. Ukraine, unlike Russia, declared the aim of the new act, inter alia, harmonization of the legislation with international and EU standards. Prior to enactment, both countries had a fragmentary regulation of few aspects of consumer credit in general consumer protection laws. I consider peculiarities of the elimination of the contract disproportion of debtor and creditor rights in contracts on consumer credit under new Russian and Ukrainian regulations from a comparative perspective. EU law does not regulate some important issues covered by Russian and Ukrainian legislations, e.g. priority of payments. On the contrary, some useful concepts, which are applicable to consumer loans under EU law, like “linked credits,” “open-end agreements” are absent in both Russian and Ukrainian laws. While comparing new Russian and Ukrainian consumer credit statutes, it is clear that in some aspects the Ukrainian one is pro-consumer, and in some other aspects the Russian one is more pro-consumer. Some provisions of both Russian and Ukrainian consumer credit statutes are very controversial and unclear; in some instances they could lead to debt slavery, so they must be corrected in the future.

126-153 241
Abstract

Having set the goal to investigate and analyze modern methods of committing fraudulent motor vehicle transaction, we systematize and classify them. Special attention is paid to systematizing data on the identity of scammers, organized criminal groups and victims. Methodological recommendations aimed to create computer psychological profiles of scammers involved in fraudulent motor vehicle transactions are offered. Empirical methods of investigation based on available historical information about the peculiarities of the methods of committing crimes in fraudulent motor vehicle transactions are developed herein. Application of such methods will increase the effectiveness of law enforcement institutions in detecting, preventing and investigating fraudulent motor vehicle transactions.

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ISSN 2309-8678 (Print)
ISSN 2312-3605 (Online)