Preview

Russian Law Journal

Advanced search

China’s Socialist Unitary State and its Capitalist Special Administrative Regions: “One Country, Two Systems” and its Developmental Implementation

https://doi.org/10.17589/2309-8678-2021-9-2-92-124

Full Text:

Abstract

The People’s Republic of China is, according to its Constitution, “a unitary multi-national state” based on the socialist system. The Constitution also allows the state to establish “special administrative regions” in light of “specific conditions.” This provision backs the principle of “One Country, Two Systems” that China applies to achieve territorial reunification, through allowing the relevant territories to continue with their capitalist system and way of life. This principle was operationalised in the cases of Hong Kong and Macau, resulting in the establishment of two Special Administrative Regions, each of which governed by a “Basic Law” prescribing the systems of the relevant region, when China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over them on 1 July 1997 and 20 December 1999 respectively. This article considers the two decades of constitutional and legal interactions between the Chinese “Central Authorities” and these sub-national Special Administrative Regions, so as to highlight the socialist mechanisms of central control that have been applied constitutionally, politically, economically and socially in Hong Kong and Macau to ensure that “One Country, Two Systems” with not be “distorted,” that national sovereignty, security and development interests are safeguarded, and that these regions will play a positive role in national economic development. It is clear from this study that the implementation of “One Country, Two Systems” in the two regions has been “developmental,” with the law serving the interests of the “Centre” under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

About the Author

Pui-yin Lo
University of Hong Kong
China

Pui-yin Lo – Barrister, Part-time Lecturer, University of Hong Kong

Rm. 1705, 17/F, Marina House, 68 Hing Man St., Shau Kei Wan, Hong Kong



References

1. Biddulph S. Democratic Centralism and Administration in China in Socialist Law in Socialist East Asia 195 (Hualing Fu et al. eds., 2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108347822.008

2. Castellucci I. Legal Hybridity in Hong Kong and Macau, 57(4) McGill L.J. 665 (2011).

3. Chan J.M.M. Behind the Text of the Basic Law: Some Constitutional Fundamentals in The Invisible Constitution in Comparative Perspective 193 (Rosalind Dixon & Adrienne Stone eds., 2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108277914.007

4. Chan J.M.M. Paths of Justice (2018).

5. Chen A.H.Y. & Lo P.Y. Hong Kong’s Judiciary Under ‘One Country, Two Systems’ in Asia-Pacific Judiciaries: Independence, Impartiality and Integrity 131 (Hoong P. Lee & Marilyn Pittard eds., 2018). https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316480946.009

6. Chen A.H.Y. An Introduction to the Chinese Legal System (5th ed., Lexisnexis, 2019).

7. Cheng J. The Way of Governance and the Power of Governance: A Systemic Analysis of China’s Constitution (2015).

8. Cheung K.Y. & Fan C.S. Hong Kong Investment in China and Income Distribution of Hong Kong, 16(4) J. econ. Integr. 526 (2001).

9. Enright M.J. Developing China: The Remarkable Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (2017). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315393346

10. Hong Kong’s Constitutional Debate: Conflict over Interpretation (Johannes M.M. Chan et al. eds., 2000).

11. Hung H. Chinese State Capitalism in Hong Kong in Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Hong Kong 430 (Tailok Lui et al. eds., 2019). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315660530

12. Introduction to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Shuwen Wang ed., 2nd ed. 2009).

13. Ip E.C. Interpreting Interpretations: A Methodology for the Judicial Enforcement of Legislative Interpretations of the Hong Kong Basic Law, 2017 Pub. L. 552 (2017).

14. Ku A. Identity as Politics: Contesting the Local, the National and the Global in Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Hong Kong 451 (Tailok Lui et al. eds., 2019). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315660530

15. Lam J. Re-thinking the NPCSC’s Power to Interpret the Basic Law, 47 Hong Kong L.J. 825 (2017).

16. Lin F. The Duty of Hong Kong Courts to Follow the NPCSC’s Interpretation of the Basic Law: Are There Any Limits?, 48 Hong Kong L.J. 167 (2018).

17. Lo P.Y. & Chen A.H.Y. The Judicial Perspective of “Separation of Powers” in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, 5(2) J. int’l Comp. L. 337 (2018).

18. Lo P.Y. An Internationalist, Consequentialist and Non-progressive Court: Constitutional Adjudication in Hong Kong (1997–2009), 2 City U. H.K. L. rev. 215 (2010).

19. Lo P.Y. Enforcing an Unfortunate, Unnecessary and ‘Unquestionably Binding’ NPCSC Interpretation: The Hong Kong Judiciary’s Deconstruction of its Construction of the Basic Law, 48 Hong Kong L.J. 399 (2018).

20. Lo P.Y. Hong Kong: Common Law Courts in China in Asian Courts in Context 183 (Jiunn-Rong Yeh & Wen-Chen Chang eds., 2014). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBo9781107588813.006

21. Lo P.Y. The Judicial Construction of Hong Kong’s Basic Law (2014).

22. Lovell J. Maoism: A Global History (2019).

23. Partlett W. & Ip E.C. Is Socialist Law Really Dead?, 48(2) N.Y.U. J. int’l L. & Politics 463 (2016).

24. Potter P. China’s Legal System (2013).

25. Qiao X. Studying the Basic Law, Upgrading the Quality of Civil Servants: A Speech at the Graduation Ceremony of the “Advanced Course of the Basic Law of MSAR,” 6 acad. J. of one Country, two Systems 1 (2010).

26. Sung y. Becoming Part of One National Economy: Maintaining Two Systems in the Midst of the Rise of China in Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Hong Kong 66 (Tailok Lui et al. eds., 2019). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315660530

27. Wang Z. Relationship Between the Chinese Central Authorities and Regional Governments of Hong Kong and Macao: A Legal Perspective (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2322-5

28. Williams B. Lenin and the Problem of Nationalities, 15(4-6) Hist. Eur. ideas 611 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-6599(92)90070-S

29. Woodman S. Legislative Interpretation by China’s National People’s Congress Standing Committee: A Power with Roots in the Stalinist Conception of Law in Interpreting Hong Kong’s Basic Law: The Struggle for Coherence 229 (Hualing Fu et al. eds., 2007). https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230610361

30. Xiao W. On the Hong Kong Basic Law (2003).

31. Yu Y. The Memoirs of Yu Ying-Shih (2018).

32. Zhang Q. The Constitution of China: A Contextual Analysis (2012).

33. Zhang W. The China Horizon: Glory and Dream of a Civilizational State (2016).

34. Zhang W. The China Wave: Rise of a Civilizational State (2012).


For citation:


Lo P. China’s Socialist Unitary State and its Capitalist Special Administrative Regions: “One Country, Two Systems” and its Developmental Implementation. Russian Law Journal. 2021;9(2):92-124. https://doi.org/10.17589/2309-8678-2021-9-2-92-124

Views: 43


ISSN 2309-8678 (Print)
ISSN 2312-3605 (Online)